The Study of N-P-N Tripartite Exocentric Compounds in Persian: An Analysis within the Framework of Construction Morphology

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Linguistics, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Linguistics department, Tarbiat Modares University, Iran, Tehran

3 Department of Linguistics, Faculty of Humanities,, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.


In many languages, compounding as a word-formation process is more productive than the other processes. According to this fact, compounding has a special role in morphology of languages and this process has been concentrated by grammarians and linguists. Compound words of a language can be classified in various ways. In one of this classification methods, compounds are divided into two major categories: exocentric compounds and endocentric compounds. This research is an attempt to explore the N-P-N tripartite exocentric compounds of Persian within the framework of Construction Morphology. The data under the study have been collected from reference book “Farhang-e Farsi-ye Āmiyāne” (Persian Slang Dictionary) written by Abolhasan Najafi which totally includes 88 tripartite compounds. The approach of this research is construction-based and tried to examine metaphorical and semantic content of the above-mentioned compounds and to justify the word-formation pattern of them based on concept of “construction” and “constructional schemas”. The method of this research is descriptive-analytical and the result of research demonstrates that all the compounds that are examined in this research can be encoded by 10 semantic relations: property, person property, time, location, state, thing, condition/situation, person, action and repetition of time. Each of these semantic relations and their differences has been represented as schema which is pairing of form and meaning. The results also evinced that there is a direct relation between semantic transparency of a construction and its frequency and productivity in Persian, there are 70 N-be-N compounds in the corpus which are considerably more than other types of compounds. Therefore, it is concluded that the frequency of the N-P-N compounds is rooted from its semantic transparency.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 22 May 2021
  • Receive Date: 16 November 2020
  • Revise Date: 20 August 2022
  • Accept Date: 22 May 2021
  • First Publish Date: 22 May 2021