Document Type : Research Paper


1 PH.D Candidate, Department of Linguistics, University of Isfahan

2 Associate Professor, Department of Linguistics, University of Isfahan

3 Professor, Department of Linguistics, University of Isfahan


The present study aims to examine the analysis of Persian adjective phrases (APs) within Role and Reference Grammar (RRG) and to appraise the merits and demerits thereof. In RRG, there is no independent AP; therefore, predicative adjectives are considered as PREDICATE inside NUCLEUS of the CLAUSE and attributive adjectives are regarded as modifiers within the periphery of NUCLEUSN. Each type of adjective can, in turn, have its own modifiers as arguments or non-arguments. On the basis of this analysis, attributive APs are represented as predicative APs in a form which is very similar to relative clauses. The exclusion of AP from syntactic analysis enjoys prominent methodological and psycholinguistic advantages as such a theory demonstrates the principle of economy and offers more plausible explanations for first language acquisition as well as easier language processing. The application of RRG analysis to APs in Persian indicates that this theory can well account for such phrases in this language. This is best reflected in the effective analysis of split predicative APs, which serves another advantage for RRG. However, there are still such cases as the representation of split attributive APs which remain controversial thorough investigation.


باطنی، محمد رضا (1374). توصیف ساختمان دستوری زبان فارسی، تهران، انتشارات امیرکبیر.
دبیر مقدم، محمد (1383). زبانشناسی نظری: پیدایش و تکوین دستور زایشی، ویراست دوم، تهران، انتشارات سمت.
درزی، علی (1389). شیوه استدلال نحوی، ویراست دوم، تهران، انتشارات سمت.
رضایی، والی (1389). نگاهی تازه به ساخت مجهول در زبان فارسی. پژوهش‌های زبان‌شناسی، شمارۀ 2، 34-19.                                                                                      
قریب، عبدالعظیم و همکاران (1373). دستور زبان فارسی (پنج استاد)، تهران، انتشارات ناهید.
گلفام، ارسلان (1390). اصول دستور زبان، تهران، انتشارات سمت.
ماهوتیان، شهرزاد (1378). دستور زبان فارسی از دیدگاه رده‌شناسی، ترجمه مهدی سمائی، تهران، نشر مرکز.
مشکوة‌الدینی، مهدی (1384). توصیف و آموزش زبان فارسی، مشهد، انتشارات دانشگاه فردوسی.
میرعمادی، سید علی (1376). نحو زبان فارسی بر پایه نظریه حاکمیت و مرجع‌گزینی، تهران، سمت.
ناتل خانلری، پرویز (1364). دستور زبان فارسی، تهران، انتشارات توس.
Carnie, A. 2007. Syntax: a generative introduction.2nd edition. Oxford, Blackwell Publishing.
Cook, V.J. and M. Newson. 1997. Chomsky’s universal grammar: an introduction, Oxford, Blackwell Publishers Ltd. 
Everett, D. 2001. Asymmetrical clause linkage in Wari’ and the theory  of phrase structure, MS. rrg.html.
Matasović, R. 2001. Adjective phrases. http://www.linguistics.buffalo.  edu /research/rrg.html.
Pavey,  E.  L. 2010. The structure of language: an introduction to grammatical analysis. Cambridge, Cambridge university press.
Radford, A. 2009. Analysing English sentences: A minimalist  approach, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Rezai, V. 2003. A Role and Reference Grammar analysis of simple sentences in Farsi, Doctoral dissertation, University  of Isfahan.                   
Tallerman, M. 2015. Understanding syntax, 4th edition, London, Arnold.
Van Valin, R. D. & R. Lapolla 1997. Syntax: structure, meaning  and function, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Van Valin, R. D. 2005. Exploring the syntax-semantics interface, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Van Valin, R. D. 2008. Investigations of the syntax-semantics- pragmatics interface. (ed.), Amsterdam, John Benjamins Publishing Co.
Van Valin, R. D. 2014. Role and Reference Grammar. In A. Carnie, & Y.Sato & D. Seddiqi. The Routledge handbook of syntax. 579-603,London & New York, Routledge