Document Type : Research Paper


Faculty member/ Shahrekord University


Pre-nasal raising is a phonological process in Persian through which the low vowel /A/ changes to the high vowel [u] in the environment before nasals. While this process is obligatory in many words, it fails to occur in some words. Moreover, its occurrence can also be optional as an instance of free variation which is called optionality. This research aimed at analyzing exceptionality and optionality in the occurrence of pre-nasal raising within the framework of Optimality Theory (Prince & Smolensky, 1993/ 2004) and some related approaches. The optionality is analyzed using the free ranking approach which maps a single input onto two outputs. The exceptionality could be due to phonological reasons including the exclusive application of pre-nasal raising on the underlying representation, destruction of its input by a preceding process (bleeding order) or existence of a post- nasal /u/. It could also be due to semantic and non- linguistic reasons, i.e., this process stopped to apply several centuries ago. Instances of exceptionality which are due to phonology- semantics interactions or the non- linguistic reason are analyzed using lexical-access constraints and lexically specific constraints, respectively.


جم، بشیر و تیموری، مرضیه (1393). بررسی تبدیل واکۀ /A/ به واکۀ [a:] یا  [o]در لهجۀ فردوس در  چارچوب نظریۀ‌ بهینگی، مجلۀ زبانشناسی و گویش­های خراسان، سال ششم، شمارة پیاپی10، ص 142-121.
جم، بشیر (1394).فرهنگ توصیفی فرایندهای واجی، تهران، مرکز نشر دانشگاهی.                    جم، بشیر (آمادۀ انتشار).تحلیل تیرگی واج‌شناختی در زبان فارسی، مجلۀ جستارهای زبانی.
شقاقی، ویدا (1387). مبانی صرف. تهران، سمت. 
صادقی، علی اشرف (1363).تبدیل ̕آن̒و̓ آم̒ به̓ اون̒  و  ̕اوم̒  در فارسی گفتاریوسابقۀ تاریخی آن،مجلة زبان‌شناسی. سال اول، شماره اول، ص 71-52.
صفوی، کورش (1379). درآمدی بر معناشناسی، تهران، سازمان تبلیغات اسلامی،‌ حوزه هنری.
کلباسی، ایران (1371). ساخت اشتقاقی واژه در فارسی امروز، تهران، پژوهشگاه.  
معین، محمد (1371).  فرهنگ فارسی، تهران، امیرکبیر.
Anttila, A. 1995. Deriving variation from grammar: a study of Finish genitievs. MS., Stanford University. [ROA-63]
Anttila, A. 2006. Variation and opacity. NLLT 24: 893–944.
Bacovic, E. 2000. Harmony, dominance and control. Doctoral dissertation, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ.
Boersma, P. 2001. Phonology- semantics interaction in OT, and its acquisition. In Kirchner, R., Wikeley, W. and Pater, J.,     editors, Papers in Experimental andTheoretical Linguistics, Vol. 6: 24-35. University of Alberta, Edmonton.
Carr, P. 1993. Phonology. The MacMillan Press LTD.                             
Chomsky, N., & M. Halle. 1968. The sound pattern of English. New York: Harper & Row.
Gouskova, M. 2012. Unexceptional segments. Natural  Language and Linguistic Theory. 30: 79-133.
Jensen , J. T. 2004. Principles of generative phonology: An introduction. John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Kager, R. 1994. Ternary rhythm in alignment theory. Unpublished Ms., Utrecht University. [ROA-35].
Kager, R. 1999. Optimality theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kiparsky, P. 1973. Phonological representations. In Three Dimensions of                Linguistic Theory. (ed.) Osamu Fujimura. 1-136.Tokyo: TEC                         Company.
Kiparsky, P. 1993. Variable rules. Handout from RutgersOptimality Workshop I, October, Rutgers University, New  Brunswick, NJ.
Lombardi, L. 1996. Positional faithfulness and voicing  assimilation in optimality theory. Ms., University of  Maryland, College Park.
McCarthy, J.  2002. A thematic guide to optimality theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McCarthy, J. 2007. Hidden generalizations: phonological opacity in optimality theory. London: Equinox.
McCarthy, J. & A. Prince 1995. Faithfulness and reduplicative identity, InJ. Beckman; L. Walsh Dickey & S. Urbanczyk, (eds.). University of Massachusetts occasional papers in linguistics18: Optimality theory (249–384). Amherst: GLSA.
Pater, J. 2004. Exceptions in optimality theory: Typology and           learnability. Conference on Redefining Elicitation: Novel Data in Phonological Theory. New York University.
Pater, J. 2006. The locus of exceptionality: Morpheme-specific         phonology as constraint indexation. In Papers in optimality  theory III, eds. Leah Bateman, Michael O’Keefe, Ehren Reilly, and Adam Werle, 259–296. Amherst, MA: GLSA.
Pater, J. 2008. Morpheme-specific phonology: Constraint indexation and inconsistency resolution. In Phonological argumentation: Essays on evidence and motivation, ed. Steve Parker. London: Equinox.
Prince, A., & P. Smolensky 1993/2004. Optimality theory: constrainti in generative grammar. MIT Press.
Reynolds, W. T. 1994. Variation and phonological theory. Doctoral dissertation. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Ullmann, S. 1962. Semantics: an introduction to the study of meaning. Blackwell.
Zonneveld, W. 1978. A formal theory of exceptions in generative       phonology. Lisse: Peter de Ridder Press.