Bīstūn and Zaristūn Yesterday … Today

Document Type : Research Paper

Author

Assistant Professor of Ancient Iranian Culture and Languages, University Tehran

Abstract

“Zaristūn” the princess whose name is mentioned beside the name of her sister “Bēstūn” in the Pahlavi book of Ayādgār ī Zarērān is a daughter of Arjāsp, King of Hyons and of Iranian lineage. The choice of this name for a lady of the royal family calls for an understanding of its signification and position among Iranians and Iranian ancestries. A probe into the meaning of “Zaristūn”, “the (upholding) place of gold/golden (light) (one who shines with golden rays)” suggests a deity whose specifications accord well with the Indo-European Goddess of Dawn: a symbol of prehistoric radiance, heat and fire, pleasantness and sweetness and also the historic supervisor on marriage, fertility, birth and matrimonial and motherhood duties. In Iran she continued to survive as the Avestan Ušah. Similar to many other ancient concepts and later personifications, “Zaristūn” with its multiple manifestations can be expected to survive in different aspects of Iranian culture and this is what this article seeks to recognize.
 

Keywords


الیاده، میرچا (1372). رساله در تاریخ ادیان، ترجمۀ جلال ستاری، تهران، سروش.
بهار، مهرداد (1369). فرنبغ دادگی، بندهش، تهران، توس. 
پاپلی یزدی، محمد حسین (1388). فرهنگ آبادیها و مکانهای مذهبی کشور، مشهد، بنیاد پژوهشهای
اسلامی.
ماهیار نوابی، یحیی (1374). یادگار زریران، متن پهلوی با ترجمۀ فارسی و آوانویسی لاتین و سنجش آن با شاهنامه، تهران، اساطیر.
Bartholomae, Ch.,1904. Altiranisches Wörterbuch. Strassburg.
Benveniste, É., 1937. "Expression indo-européenne de l'éternité". Bulletin de la société de linguistique de Paris 38, 103-112.           
Berens, E.M., 2007. The Myths and Legends Of Ancient Greece And Rome. New York, Maynard, Merrill, & Co.
Cheung, J., 2007. Etymological Dictionary of the Iranian Verb. Leiden-Boston.
de Vann, M., 2008. Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages. Leiden-Boston: Brill.
Durkin-Meisterernst, D., 2004. Dictionary of Manichaean Middle Persian and Parthian. Belgium, Prebols.
Gonda, J., 1969. (2nd Edition). Aspects of Early Viṣṇusim. Delhi.
Geldner, K.F. (ed.) ,1896. Avesta, The Sacred Book of The Parsis. Stuttgart, Kohlhammer.
Hainsworth, B.-G.S. Kirk, 1993. The Iliad: A Commentary: Volume III, Books 9-12. Cambridge University Press.
Humbach, H. ,1991. The Gathas of Zarathushtra and the other Old Avestan Texts, Part I, Introduction-Text and Translation. Heidelberg, Carl Winter. Universitätsverlag.
Humbach, H., 1991. The Gathas of Zarathushtra, and the other Old Avestan Texts, Part II:Commentary. Heidelberg, Carl Winter Universitätsverlag. Heidelberg: Carl Winter. Universitätsverlag.
Kent, R., 1953. Old Persian Grammar, Texts, Lexicon. New Haven-Connecticut, American Oriental Society.
Kerr, S., 2010. “The Glory of Usha the Divinity of Dawn”. This paper is a revised version of serialized articles published from March to May 1987 in ‘Manashni’, the voice of the Australian Zoroastrian Association of NSW, Sydney, Australia.
http://www.avesta.org/kerr/Z-THE_GLORY_OF_DAWN.pdf
Kirk, G.S., 1990. The Iliad: A Commentary: Volume II, Books 5-8. Cambridge University Press.
Mallory, J.P.-D.Q. Adams (eds.), 1997. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. London-Chicago, Fitzray Dearborn Publishers.
Matasović, Ranko., 2010.  A Reader in Comparative Indo-European Religion. Zagreb.
Mayrhofer, M., 1973.  Onomastica Persepolitana. Vienna.
Monnier-Williams, Sir M., 1970. A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Delhi-Varanasi-Patna, Motilal Banarsidass.
Pokorny, J., 1959. Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch. Bern und München, Francke Verlag.
Renou, L., 1971. Vedic India. Translated from French by Philip Spratt. Delhi, Indological Book House.
Willetts, R. F., 1958. "Cretan Eileithyia". The Classical Quarterly (New Series), vol. 8, issue 3-4, 221-223.
Volume 7, Issue 2
January 2017
Pages 117-130
  • Receive Date: 03 October 2015
  • Revise Date: 22 July 2016
  • Accept Date: 22 September 2016
  • First Publish Date: 21 November 2016