Perception of a Synthetic Vowel Space by Persian Listeners

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 Ph.D. Candidate in Department of Phonetics Radboud University Nijmegen, Netherlands

2 Professor of Linguistics Laboratory of Linguistics, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Tehran, Iran

3 M.A. Graduate in Department of Linguistics, University of Tehran

Abstract

Vowels of a language can be characterized within an acoustically defined space according to native listeners’ perceptual intuition. This study investigated Persian listeners’ perception of a synthetic vowel space in which F1, F2, and F3 varied in a systematic manner. Our experimental design was based on the “Simple Target Model”. In an identification task thirty subjects heard each stimulus once in random order, and responded by choosing orthographic signs of Persian vowels. The identification of vowels depends on F1 and F2 (p<0.00001), but not on F3.  Our results highlight the importance of F1 and F2 in distinguishing Persian vowels, in agreement with those obtained in previous production experiments.

Keywords


بی‌جن‌خان، محمود (1378). یادگیری واکه‌های زبان فارسی بر اساس یک مدل شناختی. تازه‌های علوم شناختی. سال اول، شماره اول، 24-34.
بی‌جن‌خان، محمود (1384). واج‌شناسی: نظریة بهینگی، تهران، سازمان مطالعه و تدوین کتب علوم انسانی دانشگاه‌ها (سمت)، مرکز تحقیق و توسعه علوم انسانی.
 
Boersma, P, and D.Weenink. 2012. Praat: Doing phonetics by computer [Computer program].
Delattre, P, A.M. Liberman, F.S. Cooper, and L.J. Gertsman. 1952. An experimental study of the acoustic determinants of vowel color; Observations on one- and two-formant vowels synthesized from spectrographic patterns, Word, 8(3): 195-211.
Di Benedetto, M. 1989. Vowel representations: Some observations on the temporal and spectral properties of the first formant frequency, Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 86(1): 55-66.
Hawks, J, and M. Fourakis. 1995. The perceptual vowel spaces of American English and Modern Greek: A comparison, Language and Speech, 38 (3): 237-252.
Hawks, J, and J. Miller. 1995. A formant bandwidth estimation procedure for vowel synthesis, Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 97(2): 1343-1344.
Johnson, K, P. Ladefoged, and J. Mc Donough. 1993. Do women listen to men's voices with men's mouths in mind? Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 93(4): 2298.
Johnson, K. 2000. Adaptive dispersion in vowel perception, Phonetica, 57: 181-188.
Klatt, D, J. Whalen, and J. Hillenbrand. 2005. KLSYN: A formant synthesizer program [Computer program].
Lindblom, B, and M. Studdert-Kennedy. 1967. On the role of formant transitions in vowel recognition, Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 42(4): 830-843.
Lindblom, B. 1986. Phonetic Universals in vowel systems, Florida, Academic Press.
McMurray, B. 2009. KlattWorks: A [somewhat] new approach to formant-based synthesis [Computer program].
Morrison, G.S. 2008. L1-Spanish speakers’ acquisition of the English /i/-/I/ contrast: Duration-based perception is not the initial development stage, Language and Speech, 51: 285-315.
ــــــــــــــــــــــــــ. 2009. Logistic regression software for speech perception data [Computer program].
ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ. 2013. Tutorial on logistic-regression calibration and fusion: converting a score to a likelihood ratio, Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, 45(2): 173–197.
Nearey, T.M. 1990. The segment as a unit of speech perception, Journal of Phonetics, 18: 347–373.
ــــــــــــــــــــــــــ. 1997. Speech perception as pattern recognition, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 101(6): 3241–3254.
Pols, L.C.W, R.J.J.H. van Son. 1993. Acoustics and perception of dynamic vowel segments, Speech Communication, 13: 135-147.
Scholes, R.J. 1967. Categorical responses to synthetic vocalic stimuli by speakers of various languages, Language and Speech, 10: 252-282.
Strange, W, J.J. Jenkins, and T.L. Johnson. 1983. Dynamic specification of coarticulated vowels, Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 74(3): 695-705.
Strange, W, and O. Bohn. 1998. Dynamic specification of coarticulated German vowels: Perceptual and acoustical studies, Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 104(1): 488-504.
Tiffany, W.R. 1953. Vowel recognition as a function of duration, frequency modulation and phonetic context, Journal of speech and hearing disorders, 18: 289-301.
Volume 8, Issue 2
January 2018
Pages 39-58
  • Receive Date: 11 July 2017
  • Revise Date: 09 August 2017
  • Accept Date: 09 September 2017
  • First Publish Date: 22 December 2017