The Study of Derived Words Ending in '-ār' Suffix from the Viewpoint of Construction Morphology

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 Assistant Professor of Linguistics, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran,Iran

2 PhD Student of Linguistics, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran,Iran

Abstract

All languages in the world use different mechanisms to create new words. Derivation and compounding are two morphological processes whose main function is the formation of new word-forms. In Persian, derivation is one of the dynamic and widely used processes of word formation. In the realm of derivation, Persian language has many prefixes and suffixes that can be attached to existing words in order to create new words. One of these suffixes is "-ār" which is considered as one of the semi-productive suffixes of Persian language; however, the observations reveal that it has become a productive suffix in today's Persian. The main purpose of this research is to study the derivational construction [x-ār] in Persian within the framework of Construction Morphology (CM). It makes use of the notion of ‘construction’, which is defined as a pairing of form and meaning, to describe the properties of complex words. Therefore, on the basis of a construction-based approach and regarding a descriptive-analytic method, the authors try to represent the systematically semantic varieties of "-ār", possible schemas and subschemas and also the hierarchical structures, based on which, [x-ar] construction has been achieved. The data analyzed in this study has been gathered from three sources: Reverse Dictionary (Zansu) (Keshani, 1993), Persian Linguistic Database (PLDB) and FarsNet. Then, the extracted words have been examined in Farhang-e Bozorg-e Sokhan (Anvari, 2002) and obsolete items have been excluded. The findings of the research show that “-ār” has seven different meanings (functions) and thus we can consider it as a polysemous suffix. Its polysemy is not explainable at the level of words, but at the level of abstract schemas; hence, it is called “constructional polysemy”. The results of this study indicate that "entity with relation R to SEM" is the prototypical meaning of [x-ār] which is the most abstract correlation among meaning and form in Persian language.

Keywords


Abolghasmi, M., 2010. A Short Historical Grammar of the Persian Language (8th ed.). Tehran: SAMT [In Persian].
Anvari, H., and Ahmadi Givi, H., 1999. Persian Grammar 1. Tehran: Fatemi. [In Persian].
Anvari, H., 2002. Farhang-e Bozorg-e Sokhan. Tehran: Sokhan [In Persian].
Bahar, M., 1972. Glossary of Selections of Zadsparam. Tehran: Bonyad-e Farhang-e Iran [In Persian].
Bamshadi, P., and Ghatreh, F., 2018.“The Polysemy of Suffix “-i”: An Exploration within the Construction Morphology”. Language Related Research. 8 (7): 265-289 [In Persian].
Bamshadi, P., and Ansarian, S., 2016. “A Construction-based Approach to Morphology and its Applications to the Teaching of Persian Derivational and Compound Words”. Proceedings of First International Conference on Investigating TPSOL Textbooks (Vol. 2), 19-20 October 2016, Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University. pp. 999-1020 [In Persian].
Booij, G., 2007. The Grammar of Words: An Introduction to Morphology (2nd ed.).Oxford: Oxford University Press.
_____ , 2003. “Constructions: a new theoretical approach to language”. Trends Cognitive Science, 7 (5): 219-224.
_____ , 2010. Construction Morphology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
_____ , 2013. “Morphology in Construction Grammar”. In Thomas Hoffmann and Graeme Trousdale (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Construction Grammar (pp. 255-274). Oxford: oxford University Press.
_____ , 2015. “Construction Morphology”. In Andrew Hippisley and Gregory T. Stump (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Morphology (Chapter 17). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Croft, W., 2001. Radical Construction Grammar: Syntactic Theory in Typological Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Farshidvard, K., 2005. Dastur-e Mofassal-e Emruz. Tehran: Sokhan [In Persian].
Fillmore, Charles J. (1988). “The Mechanisms of Construction Grammar”. BLS, 14: 35-55.
Fillmore, C, J., and Kay, P., 1993. Construction Grammar  Coursebook. Berkeley: University of California.
Goldberg, A., 1995. Constructions: A Construction Grammar Approach to Argument Structure. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kalbasi, I,. 2012. The Derivational Structure of Word in Modern Persain (5th ed.). Tehran: Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies [In Persian].
Keshani, K., 1993. Dictionnaire Inverse de la Langue Persane. Tehran: Markaz-e Nashr-e dāneshgāhi [In Persian].
Khatibrahbar, K., 2002. Persian Grammar (1st ed.). Tehran: Mahtab [In Persian].
Khayyampour, A., 1993. Persian Grammar. Tehran: Ketabforushi-ye Tehran [In Persian].
Langacker, R. W., 2013. Essentials of Cognitive Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Moradi, E., and Karimi-Doostan, G,. 2011. “The Study of Semantic Contribution of -ār and -andeh Suffixes in Persian”. Language Research, 2(1), 101-128 [In Persian].
Moradi, E., 2014. “The Morphological Study of Some Words in Persian”. Faslname-ye Roshd-e Amoozesh-e Zaban va Adab-e Farsi. 18(112).58-61 [In Persian].
Natel-Khanlari, Parviz and Effat Mostasharniya(2007). Historical Grammar of the Persian Language. (6th ed.). Tehran: Toos [In Persian].
Rafiei, A., 2012. “Agent Meaning in the Derived Words of Persian”. Researches in Linguistics, 4(7), 19-32 [In Persian].
Sadeghi, A, A., 2001. Historical Problems of the Persian Language.(1st ed.). Tehran: Sokhan [In Persian].
Shafiei-Kadkani, M. R. 2006. āyine-yi baraye sedaha [A Mirror for Sounds]. (5th ed.). Tehran: Sokhan [In Persian].
Shaghaghi, V. 2015. An Introduction to Morphology. (1st ed.). Tehran: Elmi [In Persian].
Shamsfard, M. et al. 2010. “Semi-Automatic Development of Farsnet; The Persian Wordnet”. Proceedings of 5th Global WordNet Conference (GWA2010). Mumbai, India.
Soltani, G., Ali. 2002. Persian Grammar. Tehran: Mobtakeran [In Persian].
Vahidiyan, K., T. and Emrani G., 2007. Persian Grammar 1. (10th ed.). Tehran: SAMT [In Persian].
http://pldb.ihcs.ac.ir/
Volume 11, Issue 1
October 2020
Pages 25-48
  • Receive Date: 17 January 2018
  • Revise Date: 28 May 2018
  • Accept Date: 03 December 2018
  • First Publish Date: 22 August 2020