Relative Clauses in Arabic and Persian

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 PhD Candidate in Persian language and Literature, Tarbiyat Modares University, Iran.

2 Associate Professor of Linguistics, Tarbiyat Modares University, Iran.

3 Associate Professor of Persian language and Literature, Tarbiyat Modares University, Iran.

4 Professor of Persian language and Literature, Tarbiyat Modares University, Iran.

5 Associate Professor of Arabic language and Literature, Tarbiyat Modares University, Iran.

Abstract

Typology is a branch of linguistics which studies the structural similarities between languages, regardless of their history. Linguistic studies have proven that different languages in the world have similarities which called Language Universals. Study of Word Order is one of the most important topics in Typology of language, because of languages are more diverse in this respect, and this diversity is a tool for typological studies. One of these diversities is sequence of Relative Clause and Noun. Topologists have identified two types: Relative Clause – Noun (Rel N) and Noun - Relative Clause (N Rel). In their view, these two sequences correlate with the arrangement of the main constituents of language in particular (verb and object).Consequently, according to their predictions, (N Rel) sequence is predominantly in VO languages, and (Rel N) sequence in OV languages. In the present article, we study relative clause in Persian and Arabic languages in order to clarify what are the characteristics of relative clause in both languages and what are the similarities and differences between them. In addition, the research seeks to study the sequence of noun and relative clause in the light of the views of Topologists. The research method is descriptive-analytical and the sentences are collected from different official texts of both Persian and Arabic languages. Over ten thousand sentences were studied .The findings of the study showed that Persian and Arabic languages follow the dominant global pattern in the sequence of relative clause and noun, meaning that both languages have the sequence (N Rel). In this context, however, the Persian language does not follow the predictions made for the ending verbs or OV languages. While the Arabic language is consistent with the predictions presented for VO languages. Also another result of this study is that the phenomenon of relative clause movement in Persian language is possible but not in Arabic.

Keywords


Abdul-Azeez, A. F. & Shaibaan, A. R. A. 2012. The Reative Pronoun Its Clause in the Arabic Grammar. Adab AL Rafidayn, 1-28, [In Arabic].
Al-Ghadban, M. M. 2010. The Ethics of war in the Prophet's life. Cairo: Dar-o-ssalam, [In Arabic].
Al-Ghalayini, M. 1994. Comprehensive Lessons in Arabic Language. Muḥammad ʻAbd Al-Munʻim Khafaji (Ed.). Beirut: Dar al Kotob ‘Asriye, [In Arabic].
Al-Samirai, F. S. 2000. Meanings of Syntax . Amman: Dar-o-lfikr, [In Arabic].
Al-Zamakhshari, 2011. Detailed Explanation of grammar. Emil Badi’ Yacob. Beirut: Dar al Kotob al ilmiyah, [In Arabic].
Ashrafi, R. H. & Kazempour, Z. 2007. Geopolitics of Information. Tehran: Chapar, [In Persian]
Azizipoor, M. 2014. Current Terms in Arabic Press. Tehran: Samt, [In Arabic].
Bahar, M. 2006. Bahar’s Stylistics. SeyedAbutalebMirabedini (Ed.). Vol. 2. Tehran: Tus, [In Persian].
Bahrami, K. 2013. A Typological Analysis of Relativisation Strategies in Farsi and German. Foreign Language Research Journal, 3(1), 61-76, [In Persian].
Bayomi, M . (2018/June/05). The woman and child. Al-Ahram Newspaper. 142 (48028). https:// www.ahram.org.eg/news/202668/8/654631/, [In Arabic].
Deqar, A. 1986. The Dictionary of Arabic Morphology and Syntax. Damascus: Dar Al Kalam, [In Arabic].
Doi: 10.22059/jflr.2013.53763
Esmailnajad, S. (2018/April). Deciphering the secret of creation. Cheshme Magazine,(59), p.4, [In Persian].
Farhang, M. (2018/April). By the time of sham. Cheshme Magazine, (59), p. 11, [In Persian].
Gharib A. & Homai, J. & Yasmi, R. & Bahar, M. & Foruzanfar B. 2013. Persian Grammar (Five Masters). Vol. 6. Tehran: Nahid Press, [In Persian].
Gholam Hoseinzade G. 2012. An Introduction to Persian Language Writing. Tehran: Samt, [In Persian].
Givi, H. (2018/June/20). Entrance exam. Movafaghiat Magazine, 20, p.31, [In Persian].
Hasan, A. 1975. The concise Syntax. Cairo: Dar El Maaref. [In Arabic]
Ibn ‘aqil, A. A. 1980. Ibn ‘aqilexplanation. Mohammed Mohieldin Abdelhamid. Cairo: Dar El Torath, [In Arabic].
Ibn al-Hājib, U. 2011.Sufficiency. Karachi : Boshra library , [In Arabic].
Ibn Jinni, A. U. .2007.. Explanation of spangles in syntax . Muhammad Khalil Mourad Al-harbi. Beirut: Dar al Kotob al ilmiyah. [In Arabic].
Imani, M. 2005. Pathology of Reading. Vol. 2, Tehran: Anjoman-e-Olyava Morabbian, [In Persian].
Jahrani, S . (2018/June/20). One step forward. Movafaghiat Magazine, 20, p.14, [In Persian].
Kareem Nashid, A. 2006. Relative: A comparison of Arabic relative pronouns and English relative pronouns. Adab Almustansaria Journal. (64). 249-279, [In Arabic].
Mahutian S. 1999. Persian Language Grammar from a Typological Perspective. Medi Samai (Trans.). Tehran: Markaz Press. [In Persian]
Mashkur, M. 1989. A Grammar in Persian Morphology and Syntax. Tehran: Shargh Press Co, [In Persian].
Mirkhani, E. (2018/April). Life style. Cheshme Magazine,(59), p.8, [In Persian].
Pooromrani, R. M. 2009. Chelcheragh: The Recreation of 40 stories of Qabus-nameh. Tehran: Tirgan, [In Persian].
Rafia, B. 2005. The nature of Cinema. Vol. 2. Tehran: Amirkabir, [In Persian].
Rasekh, M. M. 2014. Relative Clause Asymmetry in Persian. In The Proceedings of Allameh Tabataba'i University. (331), 545-552, [In Persian].
Rasekh M. M. & Alizadeh, S. M. & Izadifar, R.& Ghiasvand, M. 2012. The functional explanation of relative clause extraposition in Persian. Researches in Linguistics, 4(6), 21-40, [In Persian].
Rezai, V. & Bahrami, F. .2015.. Fundamentals of Linguistic Typology. Tehran: Beheshti University Press, [In Persian].
Roodi, ‌K. 2009. University and scientific authority. Tehran: Imam Sadegh University, [In Persian].
Safavi, K. (1993). Features of the Relative Clause in Persian. In Seyed Ali Miremadi (Ed.) Proceedings of the 2nd Conference of Theoretical and Applied Linguistics. Tehran: Allameh Tabataba'i University Press, 197-181. [In Persian]
Shalaq, A. 2006. Time in Arabic and World’s Thoughts. Beirut:Dar-o-lhilal. [In Arabic]
Shokuhi A. M. 2012. Description and teaching of Persian relative clauses: a syllabus design (Master’s thesis). Allame Tabatabai University, Tehran, Iran. [In Persian]
The Qur’an. Husain Ansari (Tran.)
Vafai, A. 2013. A Descriptive Grammar of Persian. Tehran: Sokhan. [In Persian]
Vahidian. K. T. & Omrani, G. 2013. Persian Grammar. Vol. 1. 2nd (ed.).  Tehran: Samt. [In Persian]
(2018/June/19). The owners of the tribune do not step in the path of unity breaking. Iran newspaper. Iran-newspaper.com/newspaper/item/470821/. [In Persian]
 [Last, F. M.]. (2018/June/06).  The Washington alliance targets people who refuse to join the USA-allied separatist militias . SANA News Agency from.https://www.sana.sy/?p=
[Last, F. M.]. (2018/June/06). The Visitors of The Syrian Archeology Exhibition in Prague: The Syrian monuments are invaluable treasures, and their destruction indicates hostility and hatred. SANA News Agency. From https://www.sana.sy/?p=764006. [In Arabic]
[Last, F. M.]. (2018/June/06).Brazil delivers one of the goals of the historic match(7-1) to Germany . Alsumaria News. fromhttps: // www. alsumaria. tv/ mobile/news/238590. [In Arabic]
[Last, F. M.]. (2018/June/19). The third round of political talks between Iran and Switzerland. Iran newspaper. Iran-newspaper. com/ newspaper/ item/ 470917/. [In Persian]
 [Last, F. M.]. (2018/June/23). The foot which ironed for the glory of Iran. Fars News Agency. From https : // www. farsnews. Com / news / 13970402000680/. [In Persian]
[Last, F. M.]. (2018/June/30). Al-Maliki: What happened in Iraq will not happen in Syria / Bashar al-Assad will remain. Fars News Agency. https: // www. farsnews.com/news/13911121000902/. [In Persian]
[Last, F. M.]. (2018/May/07).Erdogan: palestinians are a symbol of all the oppressed around the world because of the massacres and injustices they are subjected to . Al-Alam News Network. From https: // www. alalam. ir/ news/3542461/. [In Arabic]
https://www.alalam.ir/news/3542461.
Croft, W. 2003. Typology and Universals 2nded ,University of Manchester,Cambridge.       
Crystal, D. 2008. A dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics 6thed,    Malden, black well publishing.
Dryer, M.S.1992. The Greenbergian Word Order Correlations,language, 68: 81 – 138.
Francis, E. J. 2010. Grammatical weight and relative clause extraposition in English, CognitiveLinguistics, 21: 7 - 35.
Givon, T. 2001. Syntax An Introduction, Philadephia, John Benjamins publishing company.
Greenberg, J. H. 1963. some Universals of Grammar with particular Reference to the order of Meaning element, In Universals of Language , Cambridge : Mit press, 73 - 113.
Hawkins, J.A. 1983. Word Order Universals, New York: Academic press.
ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ,1994. A Performance Theory of Order and Constituency, Cambridge: Cambridge university press.
Keenan, E. L. 1985. Relative clauses In language typology and syntactic description, Cambridge university press, 141 - 170.
Lemann W.P. 1973. A structural principle of language and it's implications, Language, 49: 47 - 66.
Richards, J. C., & Schmidt, R. 2002. Longman Dictionary of Language and Applied Linguistics, London, Longman.
Vennemann, T. 1974.Topics, Subject and Word order, Historical Linguistics (2. 339 - 367), Amsterdam: North Holland.
Yoshitaka , E. M. & Gould, Ic. 2014. Interpreting Japanese Head-Internal Relative Clauses, the 31st West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics, Cascadilla Press.
Volume 11, Issue 1
October 2020
Pages 95-117
  • Receive Date: 20 July 2019
  • Revise Date: 17 October 2019
  • Accept Date: 15 November 2019
  • First Publish Date: 22 August 2020