The Morphology and Meaning of the Pārs (Parsumaš) Based on the Linguistic Evolutions and Historical-Mythological Traditions

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor of Persian Language and Literature, Islamic Azad University, Gachsaran Branch. Gachsaran, Iran.

2 M.A in Persian Language and Literature, Islamic Azad University, Aligudarz Branch, Aligudarz, Iran.


It is necessary to study the vocabulary of the Indo-European and Indo-Iranian periods because the structure of most Persian words goes back to the Indo-European and Indo-Iranian periods and  their  meanings show the beliefs of the earliest people and their views on the function of their morphology. During the recent centuries, comparative linguistics and mythology have facilitated the reconstruction of the words common between the two tribes. The Persians were the first Indo-Iranian tribes who established a world empire; nevertheless, there is no reference to the meaning of the word Pārs, which has an ancient construction, in historical documents. Consequently, linguists have different opinions about its meaning, and their views are just based on the linguistic document. So, in addition to linguistic and historical issues, one should also look at linguistic, mythological, and cultural exchanges with Mesopotamian civilizations because, after migrating to the Iran plateau and replacing the Mesopotamian states, the Persians owed them in many respects, including the fact that the word Pārs together with the  word Medes, has been mentioned in their documents for the first time. This research aims  at studying the structure and meanings of Pārs based on linguistic documents and historical-mythological traditions. Therefore, this research seeks to look for the time of  the formation of this word and  its most probable meanings. Hence, the method is to study the linguistic structure and morphology of the primary form of the word Pārs based on Assyrian texts and Greek mythological traditions and then find the most probable meaning. Since each word must be interpreted according to its primary form, in the end,  the meanings  of corner, leopard, ax and sickle are considered for the primary form *parsu/va, based on linguistic and historical documents, and "sickle" has been assumed as the most probable meaning for Pārs.


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Volume 12, Issue 1
July 2021
Pages 219-243
  • Receive Date: 06 September 2020
  • Revise Date: 26 April 2021
  • Accept Date: 12 June 2021
  • First Publish Date: 12 June 2021