Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Candidate of in Linguistics, Department of English language and Literature, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of English language and Literature, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran.


Historical linguistic studies on words lead to the genesis of  clitics. Clitics function like independent words but they are phonologically dependent and in order to be pronounced they attach to neighboring elements. Clitics’ attachment to their hosts can appear in different forms: proclitic, mesoclitic, endoclitics and enclitic. They are very important because clitics are where morphology, syntax, and phonology meet. Mukri Kurdish clitics which are highly mobile can be hosted by different categories including prepositions. Two groups of adpositions are found in Mukri which appear as both preposition and postposition. MacKenzie recognizes two kinds of prepositions in 'Mukri: simple prepositions and absolute forms. The prepositions of the first group occur immediately before a noun (or a noun phrase) and a pronoun which they govern, while the absolute forms which are fewer in number cannot occur before an independent noun, a noun phrase or an independent pronoun and can take only clitics as their complements. Besides the aforementioned ones, compound prepositions and circumpositions are also found in Mukri. Circumpositions can be both simple and complex. Simple circumpositions can take only nominal complements but the complex circumpositions can take both clitics and full forms as their complements. The present article tries to investigate the interaction of different kinds of Mukri adpositons with pronominal clitics using Optimality Theory constraints in Prepositional Phrase (PP). The constraints which play a role in clitic placement within PPs are NonInitial (cli, PP), Integrity (PP) and LeftMost (cli, L, PP). Data analysis against Optimality Theory constraints showed that constraints NonInitial (cli, PP) and Integrity (PP) dominate LeftMost (cli, L, PP). Finally it was concluded that Mukri Kurdish pronominal clitics appear in the second position. The research method of this article is descriptive – analytic and fieldwork. To collect the data the main author’s intuition as the native speaker of Mukri, 20 hours recorded speech, Mukri Kurdish sites and newspapers have been used.


Main Subjects

Anderson, S.R. 1992. A-Morphous Morphology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Anderson, S.R. 1993. Wackernagel’s revenge: Clitics, morphology and the syntax of second position, Language 69, 68-98.
Anderson, S.R. 1994. How to put your Clitics in their Place or Why the Best Account of SecondPosition Phenomena May be a Nearly Optimal One, GLOW Workshop in Vienna.
Anderson, S. 2005. Aspects of the theory of clitics, Oxford & New York, Oxford University Press.
Crystal, D. 2008. A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics (6th ed.), London: Blackwell.
Boersma, P., J. Deckers & J. van de Weijer (2000). “Optimality Theory: Phonology, Syntax, and Acquisition”, Pdf format.
Dabir-Moghaddam, M. 2008. On agent clitics in Balochi. In Carina Jahani, Agnes Korn & Paul Titus (eds.), The Baloch and others. Linguistic, historical and socio-political perspectives on pluralism in Balochistan, 83–101. Wiesbaden: Reichert.
Haig, G. 2008. Alignment change in Iranian languages: a construction grammar approach, (Empirical Approaches to Language Typology 37). Berlin New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Halpern, A. 1992. Topics in the Placement and Morphology of Clitics, Doctoral Dissertation Stanford University
Kager, R. 1999. Optimality Theory, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mackenzie, D. N. 1961. Kurdish Dialect Studies. Oxford University Press.
Mohammadirad, Masoud, 2020, Pronominal clitics in Western Iranian languages: Description, mapping, and typological implications, Doctoral  dissertation, Université Sorbonne Nouvelle
Öpengin, E. 2013. Clitic-Affix Interactions: A Corpus-based Study of Person Marking in the Mukri Variety of Central Kurdish. Doctoral dissertation,Université Sorbonne Nouvelle and Universität Bamberg.
Samvelian, P. 2007a. What Sorani Kurdish absolute prepositions tell us about cliticization. In, Frederic Hoyt, Nikki Seifert, Teodorescu Alexandra  & Jessica White (eds.), Texas Linguistic Society IX: The Morphosyntax of Underrepresented Languages, 263-283. Stanford: CSLI Publications.
Samvelian, P. and Bonami, O.2008. Sorani Kurdish person markers and the typology of agreement, 13th  International Morphology Meeting, Vienna
Siewierska, A. 2004. Person. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wackernagel, J.1892. “Über ein Gesetz der indogermanischenWortstellung”, Indogermanische Forschungen 1: 333–436.
Zwicky, A.1977. on Clitics.Bloomington: Indiana University, Linguistics Club.