Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Candidate Linguistics Department, Faculty of Literature, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Linguistics Department, Faculty of Literature, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran


The inadequacy of previous definitions of the concepts of subordinate or dependent clauses, and coordinate or consistent clauses, along with terminological Inconsistency, and considering all sentences containing relative clauses, complement clauses, and adverbial clauses in their construction as complex sentence in Persian language on one hand, and neglecting the possibility of hierarchical nature of clause linkage on the other hand causes a lot of dispersion in the definition of clause linking and complex sentence  in previous research. In Persian language, in many cases, especially in speech, linkers (conjunctions) are not overt, which make the coordinate clauses and subordinate clauses alike on one hand and similar to independent clauses on the other hand. Conjunctions or linkers in clause linkage are also place of dispute, covering an inconsistent collection its items clearly different from each other. To address these issues, in a descriptive approach, a spoken corpus of 4500 minutes of various programs of different television and radio channels of National Media of Iran, in the period of Khordad 1400 to 1401 were examined. For data analysis in this research, no priori theoretical framework was used, but based on the collected data, with a prototypical and hierarchical approach, a model proposed for the study of clause linkage and complex sentence in Persian language. To achieve this goal, definition for different kind of clause linkage presented in the first place, then two concepts of “Clause connection” and “clause relation” were distinguished. And a triple distinction was established between intra-clausal linkage (within the same clause), inter-clausal linkage (between two clauses), and beyond-clause linkage. The concepts of coordination, dependency and subordination, then re-defined. The linkers utilizing in each linkage are also specified. Then by determining same parameters for describing both the coordinate and subordinate clauses, hierarchies in clause linkage and complex sentence continuum in spoken Persian presented.


Anvari, Hassan and Hassan Ahmadi Givi (1990). Persian grammar. Tehran: Fatemi. [In Persian]
Arjang, Gholam Reza (1992).Contemporary Persian grammar. Tehran: ghatreh. [In Persian]
Asher, Nicholas & Lascarides, Alex. 2003. Logics of Conversation [Studies in Natural Language Processing]. Cambridge: CUP.
Batani, Mohammadreza (1969). Description of the grammatical structure of the Persian language. Tehran: Amir Kabir.. [In Persian]
Cristofaro, S. (2005). Subordination. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dik, S. C. (1997). The Theory of Functional Grammar. Part 1: The Structure of the Clause. Ed. Kees Hengeveld. Berlín and New York: Mouton de Gruyter. (1997b): The Theory of Functional Grammar. Part, 2.
Emad Afshar, Hossein (1993). Grammar and structure of Persian language. Tehran: Allameh Tabatabaei University Press. [In Persian]
Farshidvard, Khosrow (1996). The sentence and its evolution in Persian language. Tehran: Amir Kabir. [In Persian]
Foley, W.A. & R.D. Van Valin (1984). Functional syntax & universal grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gholam Alizadeh, Khosrow (1995).Construction of Persian Language. Tehran: ehya_ketab. [In Persian]
Haiman J. and S.A. Thompson (1984). Subordination in universal grammar. In Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Meeting of Berkeley Linguistic Society.
Halliday, M. (1985). An Introduction to Functional Grammar. London: Edward Arnold.
Haq-Shanas, Ali Mohammad and Aladdin Tabatabai and Seyed Mehdi Samai and Hossein Samei (2008). Persian grammar for continuous and non-continuous associate and bachelor courses of Persian language and literature. Tehran: Madrese. [In Persian]
Hengeveld, K. (1996). The internal structure of adverbial clauses. Functional Grammar Series, 119-148.
Jafari, Fateme (2011). Practical grammar for non-Persian language learners. Tehran University: Dehkhoda international Institute of Persian learning. [In Persian]
Kamp, Hans & Reyle, Uwe. 1993. From Discourse to Logic. Introduction to Modeltheoretic Semantics of Natural Language, Formal Logic and Discourse Representation Teory [Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy 42]. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Khanlari, Natl (1976).Persian grammar. Tehran: Toos. [In Persian]
Lambton, A. K. S. (1976). Persian Grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Langucker. R. W. (1991). Foundation of cognitive grammar. Vol.2. Descriptive Applications. Standford: Standford University Press.
Lazard, Gilbert (1975). A grammar of contemporary Persian. Tehran: Hermes. [In Persian]
Lehmann, C. (1988). Towards a typology of clause linkage. Clause combining in grammar and discourse18, 181-225.
Mahoutian, Shahrazad (1997) Persian grammar from the view point of typology. Tehran: Markaz. [In Persian]
Mann, William C. & Tompson, Sandra A. 1988. Rhetorical Structure Teory: Toward a functional theory of text organization. Text 8(3): 243–281
Matthiessen, C. & S.A. Thompson. (1988). the structure of discourse and subordination, in J. Haiman J. and S.A. Thompson (Eds), Clause Combining in Grammar and Discourse. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Mehravaran, M. (2016). The Dangling model in the construction of compound sentences with regard to verb tenses. Literary Arts7(2), 87-108. [In Persian]
Meshkatodini, Mohammad (2002). Persian grammar based on Transformational grammar. Mashhad: Ferdowsi University Press. [In Persian]
Mirzaei, A. (2017). Redefining the Concepts of Dependent and Independent Clauses According to a Functional Approach. Language and Linguistics13(26), 117-132. [In Persian]
Naghz Goye Kohan, M., & ahmadkhani, J. (2015). “Conjunctive coordination in Persian language”. Comparative Linguistics.  5(10), 197-217. [In Persian]
Noubahar,M. (1993). Functional grammar of Persian language. Tehran: Rahnama. [In Persian]
Rasekh Mahand, M., & salimian, R. (2015). Adverbial Clauses order in Persian. Journal of Adab Pazhuhi9(32), 173-192. [In Persian]
Rasoolpour Hassan-Loui, Hossein (2009). An Investigation in the Persian Compound Sentences on the “Role and Reference Grammar”. Master's thesis. Mashhad: Ferdowsi University. [In Persian]
Reinhart, T. (1984). Principles of Gestalt perception in the temporal organization of narrative texts. Liguistics. 22. 779-809.
Shafaei, Ahmed (1984). Scientific basis of Persian grammar. Tehran: Toos. [In Persian]
Shariat, Mohammad Javad (1985). Persian grammar. Tehran: Asatir. [In Persian]
Tabibzadeh, Omid (2012). Persian grammar. Tehran: Markaz. [In Persian]
Tomlin. R. (1985). Foreground-background information and the syntax of Subordination. Text 5. 85-122. 
Vahidian Kamiyar, Taghi and Gholamreza Omrani (2000). Persian grammer. Tehran: Samt. [In Persian]
Van Valin, R. Jr & R. LaPolla (1997). Syntax: Structure, meaning & Function. Cambridge University Press.
Van Valin, R. Jr & R. LaPolla (1997). Syntax: Structure, meaning & Function. Cambridge University Press.
Windfuhr, G. L. (1979). Persian grammar: History and state of its study (Vol. 12). Mouton: The Hague.
Yousefi, s. & H.Torabi (2013). Basic Persian: A Grammar and Workbook. Rotledge. London and New York.