عنوان مقاله [English]
This article addresses the phonetic and phonological representation of H- phrase accent in the tonal structure of Persian pre-nuclear accents. In an experimental study, three groups of pre-nuclear accentual phrases, namely, phrases with antepenultimate, penultimate and final stress pattern, were selected for tonal examination. Materials were designed so as to yield under-pressure and pressure free prosodic environments. The sentences were then read by four speakers of standard Persian. Results revealed some evidence for the presence of phrase accent as a part of the tonal structure of all groups, except for oxytones in which there is not sufficient segmental space for the realization of the H- phrase tone. Thus, we may transcribe pre-nuclear accents in Persia as a sequence of an L+H* pitch accent and a H- phrase accent: L+H*H, whereby L+H* is associated with the stressed syllable and the H- is spread as a plateau from the accented syllable to the end of the accentual phrase. The observations further revealed that the H- plateau is realized in different ways depending on the stress pattern of the accentual phrase. The H- plateau can best be explained using the tone copy analysis which assumes that a plateau results from copying a phrase accent from the boundary to units which do not bear tones such as final syllables.
اسلامی، محرم (1384). واجشناسی: تحلیل نظام آهنگ زبان فارسی، تهران، سازمان مطالعه و تدوین کتب علوم انسانی دانشگاهها (سمت)، مرکز تحقیق و توسعه علوم انسانی.
Arvaniti, A, & M. Baltazani .2000. Greek ToBI: a system for the annotation of Greek speech corpora, In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2000) , Athens: 555-562.
Arvaniti, A, D. R. Ladd & I. Mennen .1998. Stability of tonal alignment: the case of Greek prenuclear accents, Journal of Phonetics, 26: 3-25.
Beckman, M. E, & J. B. Pierrehumbert (1986). Intonational structure in English and Japanese, Phonology Yearbook, 3: 255-310.
Bolinger, D. 1970. Relative height, In P. Leon, G. Faure & A. Rigault (eds.), Prosodic feature analysis. Montreal: Didier, 109-125.
D'Imperio, M. 1991. Tonal structure and pitch targets in Italian focus constituents, In J. Ohala et al. (1999) , 1757-1760.
Fery, C. 1993. German intonational patterns, Tubingen: Niemeyer.
Frota, S. 2000. Prosody and focus in European Portuguese: phonological phrasing and Intonation, New York: Garland.
Grice, M. 1995. The intonation of Palermo Italian: implications for intonation theory, Ubingen: Niemeyer.
Grice, M, & R. Benzmuller. 1998. Tonal affiliation in German falls and fall rises, Poster presented at the 6th Conference on Laboratory Phonology, York.
Grice, M, & M. Savino. 1997. Can pitch accent type convey information status in yes-no questions?, In Proceedings of the ACL 97 Workshop on Concept to Speech Generation Systems, Madrid, 29-38.
Grice, M, D. R. Ladd & A. Arvaniti .2000. On the place of phrase accents in intonational phonology, Phonology, 17: 143-185.
Gussenhoven, C. 1984. On the grammar and semantics of sentence accents, Dordrecht, Foris.
Gussenhoven, C. 1993. The Dutch foot and the chanted call, Journal of Linguistics, 29: 37-63.
Ladd, D. R. 1978. Stylized intonation, Language, 54: 517-540.
Ladd, D. R. 1983. Phonological features of intonational peaks, Language, 59: 721-759.
Ladd, D. R. 1996. Intonational phonology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ladd, D. R, & A. Schepman. 2003. Sagging transitions between high pitch accents in English: experimental evidence, Journal of Phonetics, 31: 81-112.
Mahjani, B. 2003. An Instrumental Study of Prosodic Features and Intonation in Modern Farsi, MA dissertation, University of Edinburgh.
Pierrehumbert, J. B. 1980. The phonetics and phonology of English intonation, Doctral dissertation, MIT.
Pierrehumbert, J. B, & M. E. Beckman. 1988. Japanese tone structure, Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
Prieto, P. 2005. Stability effects in tonal clash contexts in Catalan, Journal of Phonetics, 33: 215-242
Prieto, P, & F. Torreira. 2007. The segmental anchoring hypothesis revisited: Syllable duration and speech rate effects on peak timing in Spanish, Journal of Phonetics, 35: 473-500.
Reyelt, M, M. Grice, R. Benzmuller, J. Mayer & A. Batliner. 1996. Prosodische Etikettierung des Deutschen mit ToBI, In D. Gibbon (ed.), Natural language and speech technology, Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 144-155.
Sadat-Tehrani, N. 2007. The Intonational Grammar of Persian, PhD dissertation, University of Manitoba.
Sadat-Tehrani, N. 2009. The alignment of L + H* pitch accents in Persian intonation, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 39: 205-230.
Trager, G. L, & H. L. Smith. 1951. An outline of English structure, Norman: Battenburg Press.