عنوان مقاله [English]
Providing knowledge for effective communication cannot just be limited to teaching linguistic information, and pragmatic competence should also be considered. Since the main goal of teaching foreign languages is related to teachers, their proficiency and pragmatic awareness are very important; Nevertheless, the conditions for the acquisition of speech acts is not provided adequately. In this regard, the present study aims to analyze the pragmatic competence of Iranian EFL teachers considering the strategies of expressing speech act gratitude in English. In order to evaluate the use of strategies of expressing gratitude, a Discourse Completion Task questionnaire (DCT) and a coding scheme proposed by Cheng were used. Also, the Gratitude Questionnaire-Six Item Form (GQ-6) was employed to study the influence of personality on expressing gratitude. The questionnaires were distributed randomly, and the male and female participants were asked to fill the discourse completion task. They were expected to write down as many words or utterances as they wanted to express their gratitude towards the situation in a limited time. Finally, 133 completed questionnaires were collected. Then, responses were coded based on the Cheng coding scheme. The findings showed that all 8 gratitude strategies of the Cheng model were applied by teachers. The "Thanking" strategy was the most frequent (39.9%). Also, the results of the Kruskal-Wallis H test showed that the three groups of instructor's field of study (academic discipline) do not show any significant difference in expressing their gratitude strategies.
آقاگلزاده، فردوس (1392). فرهنگ توصیفی تحلیل گفتمان و کاربردشناسی. تهران: انتشارات علمی.
Brown, G. and Yule G. 1989. Discourse Analysis, Cambridge University Press.
Cheng, S. W. 2005. An exploratory cross-sectional study of interlanguage pragmatic development of expressions of gratitude by Chinese learners of English. University of Iowa.
Cheng, K. W., Wang, Y. and Yan, H. M. 2017. Study of Relation between EFL Students' Cognitive Style and Pragmatic Competence. Journal of Electronic Science and Technology, 15(1), 41-47.
Cho, H. C. and Abe, S. 2013. Is two-tailed testing for directional research hypotheses tests legitimate? Journal of Business Research, 66(9), 1261-1266.
Cui, X. 2012. A Cross-linguistic Study on Expressions of Gratitude by Native and Non-native English Speakers. Journal of Language Teaching & Research, 3(4).
Diaz Perez, F. J. 2005. The speech act of thanking in English: differences between native and non-native speakers' behaviour.
Ehtesham Daftari, G. and Tavil, Z. M. 2015. The intersection of pragmatics and applied linguistics in teaching speech acts: Apologies perspective. International Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, 7(2), 1–17.
Eslami-Rasekh, Z. 2005. Raising the pragmatic awareness of language learners. ELT Journal, 59(3), 199–208.
Hymes, D. 1966. On Communicative Competence. Paper presented at the Research Planning Conference on Language Development among Disadvantage Children.
ـــــــــ. 1972. On Communicative Competence. Sociolinguistics,269-293.
McCullough, M. E., Kilpartrick, S. D., Emmons, R. A., and Larson, D. B. 2001. Is Gratitude a Moral Affect? Psychological Bulletin, 127(2), 249–266.
Pishghadam, R. and Zarei, S. 2011. Expressions of gratitude: A case of EFL learners. Review of European Studies, 3(2), 140–149.
Rathert, S. 2013. The Language Outside and Inside the Foreign Language Classroom : Speech Act Theory and Discourse Analysis. The Internet Journal Language, Culture and Society, (36), 81–87.
Verschueren, J. 1999. Understanding pragmatics. Oxford University Press.
Yoosefvand, A. and Eslami Rasekh, A. 2015. A comparative study of gratitude speech act between Persian and English speakers. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 1(2), 44-61.
Yule, G. 1996. Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
ـــــــ. 2000. Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.